广东省36选7开奖结果 www.tb9e3.cn 报告题目：400 million years of co-evolution with plants shaped the genome of mycorrhizal fungi
Francis Martin教授是法国农业科学院院士，法国国家农业研究所特聘研究主任，ARBRE (Advanced Research on the Biology of Tree and Forest Ecosystems)卓越实验室负责人。Francis Martin教授在法国亨利·波安加乐－南锡第一大学获得植物科学博士学位，并在加州大学洛杉矶分校从事分子生物学博士后的研究，后在法国法国国家农业研究所工作至今。主要科研方向包括菌根共生、真菌演化以及森林生态学的发展途径研究等。Francis Martin院士先后在《Science》《Nature》《Nature Genetics》《PNAS》《New Phytologist》等全球顶级科学期刊发表多篇文章， H指数（h-index）高达79，论文引用次数达25166。同时，Francis Martin院士还担任《New Phytologist》责任编辑、《Fungal, Biology & Genetics》《Fungal Biology Reviews》《PLoS Genetics》等多个国际著名高水平科学期刊的副主编工作。
400 million years of co-evolution with plants shaped the genome of mycorrhizal fungi
The ability of fungi to form mycorrhizas with plants is one of the most remarkable and enduring adaptations to life on land. Fossils preserved under exceptional conditions provide tantalizing glimpses into the evolutionary history of mycorrhizas, showing the extent of their occurrence and aspects of their evolution in extinct plants. Together with calibrated phylogenetic trees, these approaches extend our understanding of when and how groups evolved in the context of major environmental change on a global scale. Phylogenomics furthers this understanding into the evolution of different types of mycorrhizal associations, and genomic studies of both plants and fungi are shedding light on how the complex set of symbiotic traits evolved. Here I will present the main phases of the evolution of mycorrhizal interactions from palaeontological, phylogenetic and genomic perspectives. I will highlight how 400 million years of cooperation with their host plants has shaped the genomes of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycotina) and ectomycorrhizal Dikarya (Ascomycota & Basidiomycota). Our comparison of mycorrhizal genomes revealed a remarkable convergence in genomic traits in Glomeromycotina and Dikarya with massive accumulation of transposable elements, extensive gene duplications in species-specific families and signalling pathways, but also losses of genes related to saprotrophism in symbiotic clades. Mycorrhizal fungi are, as a rule, not good saprotrophs and several fungal lineages have basically given up saprotrophy as they evolved to exploit the mainly biotrophic, mycorrhizal niche. Finally, I will consider how these insights can be integrated into a model of the development of ectomycorrhizal symbioses and pave the way to a better understanding of their role in carbon cycling in forest ecosystems.